Team A: Phenomenology

Subject: ⛩️ Culture
Type: Informative Essay
Pages: 3
Word count: 799
Topics: Ethnography, Nursing
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Team A: Phenomenology

Phenomenology denotes an investigation formation that is concerned with a person’s mindset experience. Thus, ethnography is an important technique of social research. The ability of ethnography to explore human cultures results in a better interpretation of human actions (Ironside, 2014, p.1). Phenomenology principal focus is based on an individual’s opinion and experience. Phenomenology’s principle relies on its intentionality and a person’s interpretation towards a particular subject of interest. Therefore, the method’s data acquisition relies on a person’s recount of their experiences.

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The implementation of the technique is beneficial to the interviewer since it provides an interviewer with an opportunity to have an in-depth understanding of the interviewee’s phenomena. The information acquired through such interviews makes the method qualitative research (Polit & Beck, 2014, p.300). The implementation of Phenomenology may lead to disadvantages that may negatively influence the credibility of the study. One of the disadvantages of this style of data acquisition relies on the certainty of its authenticity and validity. The study may lack authenticity and validity due to the challenges of detecting and prevent bias during data acquisition. The qualitative nature of the data collection from this method may also be difficult to implement by the nursing practitioner.

TEAM B: Grounded Theory

Grounded Theory was discovered in 1967 by Strauss and Glaser. Grounded theory involves the spiritual comprehension in nursing practice. Thus, a better understanding of the theory will provide a nursing practitioner with the necessary skills to apply in service delivery. Trained nurses in Grounded Theory, are knowledgeable in providing holistic care to their patients.

The primary focus of the Grounded Theory is the spiritual domain of both caregivers and the patients. Therefore, the technique is beneficial for enhancing a caregiver’s spiritual awareness that will enable them to promote spiritual care and overcome personal barriers. The method also encourages openness, respect, and tolerance between the patients and their caregiver (Cone & Giske, 2012, p.3). Grounded Theory is crucial to the practitioners in balancing and setting professional boundaries. However, Grounded Theory has limitations as a result of the language barrier between patients and the nursing practitioners.

TEAM C: Ethnography

Ethnography is an ancient method of qualitative social research in the health profession. Ethnography is a medical investigation style that investigates the impacts and influences of the social phenomena of a patient (Nakrem, 2015, p.1). Thus, ethnography boosts practitioners’ comprehension of the human actions towards their healthcare environment. Currently, the implementation of ethnography is global concern that is encouraged to improve quality care in nursing facilities. 

The need to improve quality care in healthcare facilities have resulted in the development of “corporate cultures.” Corporate cultures are organization’s customs are values that guide caregivers on how to solve problems, manage a patient-caregiver relationship, and how to adapt the external environment (Nakrem, 2015, p.2). Thus, corporate cultures are established as a means of enhancing quality care in health facilities.

The ageing individuals are the most vulnerable patients that require the incorporation of ethnography while handling them. As witnessed in most European nations, the population trend is increasingly shifting to the ageing group (Nakrem, 2015, p.1). Thus, nursing homes play a crucial role in the health sectors of these countries due to their service provision to the ageing population. The achievement of quality care by healthcare facilities require the incorporation of ethnography in their operations.

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Donabedian (1980), elaborates that quality caregiver is divided into two: technical care and interpersonal processes (Nakrem, 2015, p.5). Technical care category involves the utilization of science and technology in solving health issues. Thus, the development of the technical care in a health facility promotes the maximization of service delivery at low costs and risks. Interpersonal processes are the psychosocial interaction between the nursing practitioners and patients(Nakrem, 2015, p.2). Thus, an advanced interpersonal quality in healthcare depends on the caregivers’ cohesiveness towards the set values. The healthcare ethics validates the set values that are proposed by ethnography. Therefore, the ethnographic study conducted by Donabedian (1980) supports ethnography as a tool for enhancing care provision in health centers.

There are various advantages that caregivers can enjoy as a result of incorporating ethnography in their area of specialty. Through ethnography, physicians get to acquire a better comprehension of their facilities (Nakrem, 2015, p.7). The ethnographic information acquired will promote communication management, which translates to an improved communication within the facility. Ethnography can also be applied in establishing formal structures such as hierarchies and rules. However, ethnography has its disadvantages that may undermine the operations of a health facility. Incorporate this technique requires that caregivers to carry out an extensive research that may be expensive for the organization to fund. Thus, some healthcare facilities find it challenging to apply ethnographic method due to costs of research. In-depth data acquisition translates to the allocation of more time during research. Thus, the style is time-consuming. Ethnographic results lack generalization due to its qualitative methodology.

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  1. Cone, P. H. & Giske, T. (2012). Teaching spiritual care: a grounded theory study among 
  2. undergraduate nursing educators. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 22, 1951- 1960. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2012.04203.
  3. Ironside, P. M. (2014). Enabling narrative pedagogy: inviting, waiting, and letting be. Nursing 
  4. Education Perspectives, 35(4), 212-218. doi:10.5480/13-1125.1
  5. Nakrem, S. (2015). Understanding organizational and cultural premises for quality of care in 
  6. nursing homes: an ethnographic study. BMC Health Services Research, 1-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-015-1171-y
  7. Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2014). Essentials of nursing research: Appraising evidence for 
  8. nursing practice (8th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
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