Primary Types of Cancer and How They Are Related

Subject: 🏥 Health Care
Type: Descriptive Essay
Pages: 8
Word count: 1973
Topics: Breast Cancer, Cancer
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Cancer has remained a deadly disease for a long time, and the different types of cancer are related thus making it difficult to treat the disease to full recovery. However, recognizing the signs and symptoms of a given type of cancer early can increase chances of getting cured. Cancers are named by the sort of organ or tissue in which they develop. Some of the most common types of cancers are skin, lung, breast, and leukemia cancer. The paper essay will evaluate the history of cancer, major types of cancer including their causes and symptoms, and how they are related.

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How Cancer Was Discovered

The oldest reported case of cancer hails from old Egypt in 1500 BC. The subtle elements were recorded on papyrus, reporting eight instances of breast cancer. It was dealt with by burning, which wrecked tissue with a hot instrument called the fire drill. It was likewise recorded that there was no treatment for the malady (Turkington and LiPera 1-10). There is evidence that the old Egyptians could differentiate amongst dangerous and benevolent tumors.

The father of medicine, Hippocrates (460– 370 BC), is credited with producing the term carcinoma, and for speculating that growth was caused by ‘a lopsidedness of the four senses of humor.’ All through history, incalculable causes of cancer have been proposed including: infuriating the divine beings, aging or acidic lymph, constant aggravation, injury, and contamination. These speculations stood unchallenged until the point that the Renaissance when Galileo and Newton started to utilize the scientific technique, which established the frameworks for the cutting edge scientific investigation of infection (Macera et al. 1-15). The eighteenth century saw the introduction of cancer disease transmission when three astute perceptions were made. To begin with, the high frequency of breast cancer in nuns contrasted with non-chaste women which gave the original insight that hormones may assume a part in cancer. Moreover, incidences of cancer of the scrotum common in London’s fireplace sweeps prompted general health measures to reduce cancer risk at work (Turkington and LiPera 1-10).

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How Different Cancers Are Related

Cancer, in general, is a term that refers to the uncontrollable and unusual division of cells attacking different tissues. Ordinary body cells develop, divide, and die in an organized manner. In normal differentiated cells, there are cell components which control cell division. At the point when these components do not work in the right way, cells may duplicate unreasonably shaping a tumor which is an unusual mass of cells (Starr et al. 135). There are two sorts of tumors mainly malignant and benign tumors. A malignant tumor is an irregular mass of tissue capable of spreading into neighboring tissue and frequently to other body parts different parts (Starr et al. 135).

The source of the tumors is mainly the cancer cells which are primarily the same as cells of the life form from which they started and have similar DNA and RNA. The cancer cells form from cells dividing uncontrollably caused by adjustment of DNA, and these progressions can happen at many levels. Changes in many genes are required to change an ordinary cell into cancer cells (Hales 311-313). Normally, hereditary irregularities in cancer cells influence two general classes of genes. The first is cancer advancing genes actuated in tumor cells, giving it new properties, for example, hyperactive development and division. The second one is the tumor suppressor genes that are then inactivated in disease cells causing loss of typical elements of these cells, for example, control over the cell cycle (Hales 311-313).

Metastasis is a procedure of travel or spread of cancer cells to different parts of the body. Cancer cells regularly spread through three fundamental ways. The first one is local spread where disease cells develop straightforwardly into adjacent body tissues (Berg et al., 376-378). The second technique is through the blood dissemination where cancer cells split far from the essential tumor and after that sneak past the walls of veins into the circulation system until the point that they get stuck at some place. Most cancer cells spreading through blood course are destroyed by white cells in the invulnerable framework, but some of them stick to platelets to shape clusters and give themselves security and after that survive and form metastasis (Berg et al., 376-378). Cancer cells likewise spread through the lymphatic framework where cancer cells go in lymph liquid until the point when they get stuck in small channels inside the lymph hub and develop into secondary cancer. Secondary cancer does not take the attributes of the cells in the new area but keeps on looking like essential cancer.

Cancer cells are assembled into four categories mainly carcinomas, sarcomas, leukemia and lymphomas (Brannon and Feist 255). Carcinomas are cancers that start in the covering of the body, for example, skin or the linings of the intestinal tract or respiratory tract. Sarcomas, on the other hand, emerge in tissues that help the body, for example, bone. Leukemia and lymphomas are cancers of blood framing tissue, for example, bone marrow, spleen, and lymph hubs (Brannon and Feist 255).

Major types of Cancer

Skin Cancer

The skin is made of an assortment of cells, a considerable lot of which are in constant movement. Round basal cells beneath the surface flatten as they ascend to supplant dead, chipping squamous cells on the surface (Miller 191-192). Skin cancer is in most cases difficult to detect which is why many people seek medical care when the cancer has already reached advanced stages.

Causes of skin cancer

The main cause of cancer is the sun Ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However UV light from tanning beds is similarly unsafe. Being exposed to sunlight during winter likewise expands the danger of getting skin cancer and additionally sunlight exposure amid the late spring (Miller 191). This is basal cell and squamous cell skin cancer is caused by cumulative exposure to sun rays while scenes of serious sunburns, normally before age 18, can cause melanoma further down the road. Different less basic causes are rehashed X-beam exposure, scars from burns or infection and work-related exposure to specific chemicals (Miller 191-192).

Signs and Symptoms

An unusual skin developments or sores that do not leave might be the ultimate sign of a skin disease. Skin cancer may also begin its manifestation through skin patches that sometimes bleed or produce a discharge (Goldsmith 15-25).

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Breast Cancer

This type of cancer is one of the most prevalent especially among women. The uncontrollable cell multiplication in the breast tissues forms the foundation of the disease. The cells multiply to an extent of tumor development that can regularly be felt as a lump or discovered through scanning (Barh et al 549).

Causes of Breast Cancer

There are different causes of breast cancer but the major ones are age, thick breast tissue and family history. The chances of developing breast cancer increase with age (Barh et al 549). The condition is most regular among women more than 50 who have experienced the menopause. In relation to family history, on the off chance that somebody has close relatives who have had breast cancer; they may have a higher chance of developing breast cancer. Women whose breast tissue is thick on the other hand have high chances of developing breast cancer since the thicker the tissues, the more the cells undergoing duplication (Barh et al. 549).

Signs and symptoms

At first, breast cancer may go unnoticed since there are no mild symptoms. However, as the cancer develops, a lump can be felt in the breast which may either be painful or not. Sometimes the lump may be uneven while in other cases it can be rounder, soft, and tender (Smith 45-52).

Lung Cancer

The disease affects the lungs and is common among people who smoke regularly.

Causes of Lung Cancer

Research conducted indicates that both active and passive smoking is the greatest cause of lung cancer. Radon, on the other hand, is a radioactive gas that occurs naturally and can cause lung cancer (Harris 143-149). The gas originates from small measures of uranium found in all stones and soils. It can also be found in building structures. Exposure to specific chemicals and substances utilized as a part of a few occupations and enterprises has been connected to be a contributing factor to the development of this type of disease (Harris 143-149).

Signs and Symptoms

The disease becomes evident as the condition advances, and there are typically no signs or side effects in the beginning times. However, Alberg summarizes the principal manifestations of lung cancer as: consistent coughing, persistent chest diseases, coughing up blood, pain when breathing or coughing, and persistent loss of breath (21-49).


Leukemia is a disease of the blood or bone marrow. Leukemia can happen when there is an issue with the creation of platelets. It ordinarily influences the leukocytes or white platelets (Smith 209-30).

Causes of Leukemia

Leukemia happens when the DNA of immature blood cells, primarily white cells, ends up plainly harmed somehow. This makes the blood cells to develop and divide consistently so that there are too much. Smith concludes that  as more disease cells are delivered, they stop the healthy white blood cells from developing and working regularly, by fully occupying blood space and displacing the healthy ones (209-30).

Signs and symptoms

Poor blood coagulatingWhen platelets get infected coagulation cannot take place as required. This can make a man wound or drain effortlessly and mend gradually (Smith 209-30). They may likewise grow little red to purple spots on the body, showing a minor drain.

Frequent diseasesThe white blood cells are critical for fending off contamination. On the off chance that these are stifled or not working in the right way, many diseases can come about (Smith 209-30). The resistant framework may attack other good body cells.

AnemiaAs the deficiency of good red blood cells develops, iron deficiency can come about. This can include difficulty in breathing and pale skin.


Based on the discussion of the different types of cancer, it is evident that in all types of cancers, the disease starts with changes in the genes. The cancer cells do not have differentiation which implies that they do not have a working part, nor do they appear as something besides unusual. They can along these lines enter the cell cycle various times (Turkington and LiPera 1-10). They additionally have irregular nuclei. The nuclei are amplified and may contain unknown quantities of changed chromosomes. Quality intensification and DNA harm are normal, in spite of the fact that these cells don’t experience apoptosis. In a wide range of cancers, the cancer cells form a tumor. This implies that they do not stop dividing after meeting a neighboring cell, but rather increase and stack over each other in numerous layers. The cells additionally experience metastasis and angiogenesis (Turkington and LiPera 1-10). Metastasis sets up tumors in places other than their unique area while angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels. This procedure transports nutrients and oxygen to cancer cells.


In spite of the fact that cancer includes no less than 100 distinct sicknesses, all disease cells have one thing in common which is: there is isolation that causes the division process. In other words, the root cause of cancer is the disruption of the normal division of cells in the body… The acquired transformations cause the progressions in cell division due to natural factors, for example, radiation sunlight rays, X-beams, chemicals, smoking, and infections. Existing proof recommends that in most cases, diseases are caused by several factors or events. In most cases, a recurrence in events is needed for an ordinary cell to develop within a progression of stages that are premalignant in order to result to an intrusive disease. Frequently, there is a gap of many years before the different signs and symptoms become extreme. The advancement of sub-atomic natural procedures may help in the diagnosis of potential cancers in the early stages, sometime before tumors are visible.

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Alberg, A. J., J. M. Samet Epidemiology of lung cancer. Chest 123(1), 2003, pp.21- 49.

Barh, Debmalya et al. Cancer Biomarkers: Minimal And Noninvasive Early Diagnosis And Prognosis. CRC Press, 2014,.

Berg, Linda R, Charles Martin, Diana W. Martin, and Eldra P. Solomon. Biology. Australia: Brooks/Cole, 2014. Print.

Brannon, Linda, and Jess Feist. Health Psychology: An Introduction to Behavior and Health. Australia: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.

Goldsmith, Connie. Skin Cancer. Twenty-First Century Books, 2011, pp.15-25.

Hales, Dianne. An Invitation To Health, Brief Edition. Cengage Learning, 2016,.

Harris, Randall E. Epidemiology of Chronic Disease: Global Perspectives. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2013. Print.

Macera, C. A., et al. Introduction to epidemiology: Distribution and determinants of disease in humans. Delmar, Cengage Learning, 2013, pp.1-15.

Miller, Anthony. What Causes Cancer?: What We Know And What It Means. Friesenpress, 2014,.

Smith, S. Breast Cancer: Causes, Symptoms, Signs, Diagnosis, Treatments, Stages of Breast Cancer. Kentucky, 2012, pp.45-52

Smith, S. Leukemia: Causes, Symptoms, Signs, Diagnosis, Treatments, Stages of Leukemia. U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, 2012, pp.20-30

Starr, Cecie, Christine A. Evers, Lisa Starr, and Cecie Starr. Biology: A Human Emphasis. Belmont, CA: Thomson, Brooks/Cole, 2006. Print.

Turkington, Carol, and William LiPera. The Encyclopedia of Cancer. Facts on File, 2005, pp.1-10

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