Ethics in Research

Subject: 👪 Family
Type: Proposal Essay
Pages: 3
Word count: 866
Topics: Teenage Pregnancy, Ethics, Health, Medical Ethics, Parenting
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Selected article

Easterbrooks, M. A., Kotake, C., Raskin, M., & Bumgarner, M. (2016). Patterns of Depression Among Adolescent Mothers: Resilience Related to Father Support and Home Visiting Program. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 86(1), 61-68.

Overview of the selected study

Depression among mothers is a mental concern problem within the health care sector since it affects an estimated 20% of mothers and it is even higher among mothers from low-income societies (Easterbrooks, Kotake, Raskin, & Bumgarner, 2016). It affects mothers within the first 2 years after delivery. Maternal depression is associated with several risks to the mothers and it poses a challenge to the mother’s ability to offer quality parenting to the child. Besides, it affects their employment. Recurrent maternal depression is a major contributor to the developmental problems in children if it occurs at infancy. This has been the main cause of developmental issues that are experienced among an estimated 30% of adults. Recent research studies show that young mothers are twice at risk of developing post-partum depression as compared to old mothers. Its impacts range from medium to chronic maternal depression that comes along with serious negative health consequences.

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The purpose of the study

The purpose of the selected study was to examine the patterns of depression in young mothers in the first two years of parenting.

The methodology

The researchers used a quantitative study. A total 428 participants were selected on a random basis; however, it consisted of first-time mothers who are below 21 years of age. The eligibility criteria of the participants were the ability to speak English or Spanish and should be above 16 years old.

The data were drawn from a longitudinal randomized controlled trial evaluation of Healthy Families Massachusetts. The researchers began the collection of data 12 months and 24 months after the enrollment of the participants. The collection of data was done using a questionnaire with like art questions. Questionnaires were also used to assess depression levels among the participants.

Data analysis was done using a series of multinomial logistic regression models to determine membership in the depression trajectory. To test whether the mothers were satisfied with the father’s support, an interaction term with the measure of maternal satisfaction with the father’s support and random assignment status was created.  Data were also analyzed using ANOVA.

The findings revealed that a 38.1% of the participants had high clinical levels of depressive symptoms (Easterbrooks, Kotake, Raskin, & Bumgarner, 2016). The results of ANOVA analysis showed that the participants in the three categories had a similar parent, child, family, and environmental characteristics.

If I was the researcher and I was unfamiliar with the research population, I would do a background research on the population over the internet. I would then approach a pediatric expert to provide me with background regarding the population

The eight elements of informed consent that I would develop are:

  1. Explanation of the purpose of research
  2. Risks involved in the research
  3. Benefits of the outcome of the research
  4. Alternative procedures
  5. Statement of confidentiality
  6. Compensation for the risks
  7. Description of who to contact for answers
  8. A statement that participation is voluntary
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This research contributes to the field of research by informing care providers on the patterns of depression among young mother in the first 2 years after delivery. This benefit outweighs the possible risks associated with the study since it helps in providing long-term solutions for overcoming maternal depression.

The selected research study used deception, for example, it mentions that all the participants in the three groups had a similar parent, child, family, and environmental characteristics. This deception was necessary to create internal reliability in the study; however, the researchers have failed to justify this (Nagy, 2011).

The role of Institutional Review Board (IRB) is to approve or disapprove, and modify research studies. In regards to my selected topic, the IRB would play the role of protecting the human rights of the young mothers that would be used as participants in this research study (Nagy, 2011).

Research question:

What are the impacts of attachment style in teenage pregnancy on maternal depression after birth?

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Literature review

Recent research studies show that there is a direct relationship between insecure attachment style and psychological problems among adults (Figueiredo, Bifulco, Pacheco, Costa, & Magarinho, 2006).  According to a research study by Hodgkinson et al, it was established that poor attachment styles in adulthood are a major contributor to depressive symptoms among children and adults (2010). It is a major cause of depressive symptoms among young mothers during pregnancy and after childbirth. Anxious-ambivalent attachment style results from poor support by the significant other after childbirth. High rates of depression as a result of the lack of support from the father of the child have been reported among young mothers in their transition into adulthood. Hofferth and Goldscheider (2010) established that this is imputed to the increase in conflicts in relationships between the mother and the father during pregnancy period. Poor attachment style is associated with feelings of guilt and low self-esteem among mothers (Brown, Harris, Woods, Buman, & Cox, 2012). This contributes to the poor attachment between the two parents, resulting in poor attachment and depressive symptoms in the mother.

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  1. Brown, J. D., Harris, S. K., Woods, E. R., Buman, M. P., & Cox, J. E. (2012). Longitudinal study of depressive symptoms and social support in adolescent mothers. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 16, 894-901.
  2. Easterbrooks, M. A., Kotake, C., Raskin, M., & Bumgarner, M. (2016). Patterns of Depression Among Adolescent Mothers: Resilience Related to Father Support and Home Visiting Program. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 86(1), 61-68.
  3. Figueiredo, B., Bifulco, A., Pacheco, A., Costa, R., & Magarinho, R. (2006). Teenage pregnancy, attachment style, and depression: A comparison of teenage and adult pregnant women in a Portuguese series. Attachment & Human Development, 8(2), 123-138.
  4. Hodgkinson, S. C., Colantuoni, E., Roberts, D., Berg-Cross, L., & Belcher, H. M. E. (2010). Depressive Symptoms and Birth Outcomes among Pregnant Teenagers. Journal of  Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology23(1), 16–22.
  5. Hofferth, S. L., & Goldscheider, F. (2010). Family structure and the transition to early parenthood. Demography, 47, 415– 437.
  6. Nagy, T. F. (2011). Ethics in research and publication. In Essential ethics in psychology: A primer for understanding and mastering core issues (pp. 199–216). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
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